Download Bantu Orthography Manual by Leila Schroeder PDF

By Leila Schroeder

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Even then, I recommend looking for a fricative symbol for /β/, such as . Double articulated stops Labialized velars [k͡p] Options: or rarely [g͡b] Options: or rarely Since the velar stop has usually been demonstrated to slightly precede the articulation of the bilabial, the digraph with the velar stop preceding the labial will usually be chosen over or , but there are exceptions such as Nyarwanda D61(J) and Shona (S10) (Maddieson 2003). ” The Luganda consonants may be either stressed or hit softly.

Normally [ts] and [dz] can be written as and consistently within a language. In Francophone countries, with languages where [ts] and [tš] are contrastive, they are commonly written as and , as in French ‘Tchad’ for English ‘Chad’. In addition, [ts] and [tš] can be dialectal variants within a language, and in this case the simpler [ts] can be used for both. [ts] Options: or (less desirable Francophone) [dz] Options: Example : Dibole (C101) has forms like the following (Leitch 2000) ‘open space in river’ /dzálé/́ vs.

Function words, especially short ones, are best written consistently, despite variation in their pronunciation. There is great advantage to having their form constant. Though they are often monosyllabic and therefore phonologically attached to a noun or verb, they should generally be written disjunctively26 (see section on word breaks below). The following example from the Lugwere writers’ guide (Moe 2003:4)27 illustrates phonological conditioning of a (word-internal) morpheme: Option 1: The prefix ‘Class 7’ becomes when it is followed by a vowel.

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