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By Benjamin Gal-Or (auth.)

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I: The main interrelationships in gravitism. It should be noted that gravitationally-induced thermodynamics (or the so-called astrophysical school of thermodynamics) 1 - 5, is part and parcel of gravitism. In turn, gravitism is part of a broader view that may be called Havayism (Lecture IX). t I Gravit ism Hr-violations Lecture •:& conclusions l Symmetry- Asymmetry- Space- Time w w 3 iii' ;:+' < G') ill 34 Introduction ly! The same applies to many other elementary particles whose existence is predicted by the new theories.

55 •64 . An interesting set of theories (which express the general theory of relativity in the language of quantum field theory), derives the gravitational force from the exchange of massless spin-2 particles (called gravitons) and incorporates also the concept of supersymmetry-supergravity. • Supersymmetry relates the two broad classes of elementary particles, namely the fermions (such as the electron, the proton and the neutron) and the bosons (such as the photon-Table 1). Any fermion and boson with adjacent spin can then be re- garded as alternative manifestations of a single 'superparticle' with an asymmetry in an auxiliary space.

5). 37 Quantum Chromodynamics and Quarks "0 p l\ ~f PROTON NEUTRON LAMBDA OMEGA BARYONS:~~~ ®5 MESONS: 5 (§)~8 PION n• I QUARKS SEE TABLE IV BOTTOMONIUM (UPSILON T) KAON CHARMONIUM K+ (J/4J) Figure lb PICTORIAL DESCRIPTION OF A FEW HADRONS; THE QUARK MODEL IN QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS (QCD). The term hadron refers to any strongly interacting particle. There are hundreds of known hadrons (an infinite number if excitation levels are included). They are divided into two classes; mesons, which have an integer spin (0, I, 2, ...

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