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By Dr. I. R. Hart, Dr. R. W. Newton (auth.), Dr. I. R. Hart, Dr. R. W. Newton (eds.)

Table 19. neighborhood structural results of endocrine ailments Endocrine signs and symptoms are infrequently particular. This truth renders the paintings of spotting an endocrine constitution affected characteristic disease in a sufferer extra usually certainly one of suspecting instead of 'diagnosing' it. not like so much different physique Hypothalamus complications Pituitary complications, visible illness 'systems' the very nature of the endocrine process Thyroid strain indicators, dysphagia, guarantees that the consequences of disordered functionality in a goitre gland have an effect on the physique as an entire and reason diffuse Gonads Testicular lumps, ovarian plenty signs and symptoms. such a lot sufferers with a cardiac challenge current with a number of particular signs akin to chest soreness, palpitations and oedema. the matter then turns into one in all resolving no matter if a cardiac challenge exists or now not and, if this is the case, what's the nature of the ailment approach. heritage equally, so much sufferers with a gastro-enterological and neurological challenge will current with a particular current historical past symptom - diarrhoea, or tremor - so one can direct cognizance to that organ system.

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Endocrinology

Desk 19. neighborhood structural results of endocrine illnesses Endocrine indicators and indicators are hardly ever particular. This truth renders the artwork of spotting an endocrine constitution affected function affliction in a sufferer extra usually certainly one of suspecting instead of 'diagnosing' it. not like such a lot different physique Hypothalamus complications Pituitary complications, visible disorder 'systems' the very nature of the endocrine approach Thyroid strain signs, dysphagia, guarantees that the consequences of disordered functionality in a goitre gland impact the physique as a complete and reason diffuse Gonads Testicular lumps, ovarian plenty indicators and symptoms.

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In pregnancy alveolar development is under the influence of prolactin and placental lactogen, acting upon the breast but primed by oestrogen and progesterone. \ 0""090" Puberty ~ p""",,, 7 lactogen Pregnancy Breast feeding LD-29. The endocrine control of the breast. CARBOHYDRATE AND ENERGY METABOLISM Carbohydrate metabolism Digestion of carbohydrate (LD-30) Starch consists of long chains of glucose molecules joined together in: • a single line (amylose), or • a branched line (amylopectin) The enzyme ptyalin in the saliva starts the de- ENDOCRINO LOGY Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis) .

T3 is some four times more potent than T 4. T 4 is metabolized through monodeiodination to T3 and rT3 in liver, kidney and other tissues. Normally, some 25% of secreted T 4 goes to T3, but • starvation • surgery • corticosteroid therapy NEW MEDICINE • propranolol treatment The actions of thyroid hormones • other factors In the euthyroid state, optimal concentrations of thyroid hormones efficiently balance metabolic processes. The primary site of action of T3 and T 4 is not known but fine control of the balance is achieved by regulation of enzyme activities while coarser control involves synthesis of RNA and proteins.

Table II. g. liver glucokinase (phosphorylation of glucose) Reduces activity of enzymes concerned It1 gluconeogenesis Insulin is thus an anabolic hormone concerned with synthesis of: • glycogen • fat • protein In its absence, catabolic hormones stimulate the rapid breakdown of these complex molecules thus permitting ketoacidosis to develop. At a cellular level the main effect of insulin is to increase the rate of glucose transport across cell membranes of insulin-sensitive tissues. It also lowers the level of the intracellular messenger cyclic AMP in fat, thus inhibiting lipase and fat breakdown.

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