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By James F. Crow (auth.), Max K. Hecht, Ross J. Macintyre, Michael T. Clegg (eds.)

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However, rare exceptions do exist. There are a limited number of cases in which mRNA or protein stabilization is believed to playa role in regulation, though often in conjunction with transcriptional control (Simmons et al. , 1992). , Cytochrome P450 in Drosophila Adaptation 35 benzo(a)pyrene] metabolism in rats and mice (Geiboin, 1980; Conney, 1982). Induction of enzyme activity was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis, respectively, thereby implicating a transcriptional regulatory mechanism (Gelboin and Blackbum, 1963; Nebert and Gelboin, 1970).

1995). CYTOCHROME P450S Cytochrome P450s comprise an ancient superfamily of mostly microsomal but also cytosolic (in prokaryotes) and mitochondrial hemethiolate proteins. Because they have been found in every dass of organism that has been investigated except anaerobic bacteria, it is believed that they 30 James C. Fogleman et al. 5 billion years ago (Loomis, 1988). , 1993). More re cent counts including unpublished sequences, however, put this number at over 500 genes and 70 families. Multiple genes can be expressed simultaneously in alm ost any organism.

Cytochrorne P450 in Drosophila Adaptation 17 LI MITS OF THE SONORAN DESERT o 100 200 mi les FIG. 1. The extent of the Sonoran Desert (frorn Turner and Brown, 1982) whieh they utilize (Fellows and Heed, 1972). Maintenanee of the patterns of inseet-host plant specificity reported for the eaetophilie Drosophila requires that these inseets be able to loeate appropriate host plants, assimilate essential nutrients, and cireumvent the toxie alleloehemicals present in the 18 James C. Fogleman et si. necrotie cactus tissue.

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