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By Carole L. Leadem, Sharon L. Gillies, H. Karen Yearsley, Vera Sit, David L. Spittlehouse, and Philip J. Burton

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Can be purchased from engineering or survey equipment suppliers either pre-numbered or blank. Some suppliers will engrave custom numbers on blanks. Pre-numbered plastic livestock ear tags are also available from agricultural suppliers. Plastic tags come in different colours but may break or fade over time. Metal tags are more durable but less visible. Use coated wire to attach tags to plot stakes, trees, etc. , every 1 or 2 years or less), use plastic flagging tape on stakes. Use the most durable winter-weight flagging; although more expensive, it lasts much longer.

In the former method, all the foliage in the shrub and herb layers is removed from – samples of known area (usually  m2). The area of the leaves is then measured using an image analyzer. All the leaves from a tree (or from a representative branch in each whorl) are sampled and leaf area measured with an image analyzer. Trees of different diameter at breast height (dbh) are sampled to produce a dbh/leaf area relationship (or sapwood cross-sectional area/leaf area) which is then used with stand dbh distribution to calculate tree lai.

In a topical article, Larsen et al. () defined  principles of ecosystem management which provide useful guidance to ecosystem researchers to make their research projects relevant to management needs for information. Not all research projects will be able to strictly adhere to these principles, but they provide a useful reminder of context for natural resource studies. . Management and research must deal with large landscapes. The cumulative effects of processes that typically function at smaller scales, such as standlevel silvicultural treatments, can be observed only if we step back to take a wide-angle view of the forest.

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