By Wayne Johnson
Huge textual content deals complete, targeted insurance of each point of conception and layout: components of vertical flight, ahead flight, functionality, arithmetic of rotating structures, rotary wing dynamics and aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, balance and regulate, extra. crucial examining for those interested in layout and improvement of vertical-flight airplane. 189 illustrations. 1980 version.
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Additional info for Helicopter theory
3) As with the lift curve, Reynolds number has little effect at the low lift coefficients. However, as the angle of attack increases, Re becomes important. Why? Fig. 42 Moment coefficient about the aerodynamic center lift coefficient. 42 is a graph of the moment coefficient about the aerodynamic center vs lift coefficient (or angle of attack) for a positively cambered airfoil. The key points are 1) The moment coefficient about the aerodynamic center remains constant with Reynolds number and angle of attack variation.
Because of an exchange of momentum (mass times velocity) between the fluid elements, a force is exerted on the plane a–b. We give it a special name, shear stress (ta–b), where the subscript denotes the stress is acting on the plane a–b. As you might expect, shear stress (t) is proportional to the strength of the velocity gradient. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity and is given the symbol m. dV t/ dy aÀb dV t¼m dy aÀb ð1:10Þ Physically, viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to shear and has the dimensions of mass=(length Á time).
40 35 Airfoil lift curve. 11=deg. 4) At some angle of attack, the lift coefficient is zero; this is called the zero lift angle of attack, or aL¼0. This occurs at a negative angle of attack (chord line oriented below the freestream velocity) for an airfoil with positive camber. At aL¼0 , no lift is generated. 5) Lift is generated when an airfoil with positive camber is at zero degrees angle of attack. This is usually desirable in aircraft design. 6) An increase in Reynolds number tends to increase max lift and delay the onset of stall.