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By C. Bradford Welles

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T'otL ». It is significant in any case that Tarsus is not advised to go to the governor with complaints. The cities were expected and allowed to settle their differences themselves, one hoped with methods short of war. This was foreign policy of a sort, and it called for, and exercised, at least modest talents on the part of local statesmen. £oc (6), two of which have a long tradition in Greek political science. Plato had called for freedom, harmony, and wisdom, and he was followed by the early Stoics (7), but under the Empire, as Plutarch remarked, the first of these depended very little on the local statesman (8).

Sect. 1-2. 31] HELLENISTIC TARSUS 71 imperial officials. 6vs' ( 1), a word which commonly means the provincial governors, but since Dio uses it always in the plural, while speaking of the O"'t'p1X"~"tJY6' in the singular, it may be that the latter is the provincial governor and the former the staff of procurators, advocati, and so on. And actually the governor of Cilicia was an &v't'LO"TpX't'YJj'O,, a propraetor (2). There had been a quarrel with the O"'t'p1XTYJY6' and angry words exchanged, but relations were improving, and Dio advises the city to follow a middle course: not to refuse obedience altogether but not to submit to any demand which went far in insolence and greed (5~pL' and "'-sovs~£1X) (3), fairly strong language for one so close to the emperor as Dio.

He thinks that the Tarsians should make up their minds one way or the other: either expel them or accept them. They have been for generations resident in Tarsus and know no other home. oc~). If you will sell citizenship to any corner for five hundred drachmre, will these be less desirable because they had been at some time excluded because of poverty or the caprice of some registrar? IX't'o~). Is it right to cast aspersions upon linen-workers and not upon dyers or cobblers or carpenters ( 1) ? It is needless to point out that Dio does not state, as has sometimes been claimed, that Tarsus had a property qualification for citizenship, still less that artisans were excluded from the citizen body, as Plato had recommended in the Laws.

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