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By Lutz Birnbaumer, James Darnell, Ronald Evans, Tony Hunter, Anthony R. Means, Vale Wylie, Bert W. O'Malley

Hormones and Signaling makes a speciality of the mechanism of gene law on the mobile point. It additionally covers the way in which hormones act to modulate gene law and animal improvement. Key beneficial properties* contains details on:* Nuclear receptors, coactivators, and corepressors* Membrane receptors, kinases, and phosphorylation on cascades* Hormonal rules of improvement* Calcium channels and neurotransmitters* Chromatin, transcription components, and law of gene expression* JAK/STAT pathways* Hormone-regulated improvement and gene "knock-out"

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40. Thompson, E. , and Lippman, M. E. (1974). Mechanism of action of glucocorticoids. Metab. Clin. Exp. 23, 159-202. 41. Gruol, D. , Rajah, F. , and Bourgeois, S. (1989). Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase modulation of the glucocorticoid-induced cytolytic response in routine T-lymphoma cells. Mol. Endocrmol. 3, 2119-2127. 42. , McConkey, D. , and Okret, S. (1995). Thymocyte apoptosis by glucocorticoids and cAMP. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 200, 67-79. 43. Saeed, M. F. (1995). Synergistic interaction between the glucocorticoid and the cAMPdependent protein kinase pathways in human leukemic cells.

When the ligand-binding domain of the GR is removed completely, the residual peptide becomes constitutively lethal, with much more rapid kinetics than the holoreceptor plus steroid. Thus, such truncated peptides may be causing cell death by another pathway. Such an effect is of interest for its potential in therapy of leukemias. Questions of 32 E. Brad Thompson optimization of potency and targeted delivery of this GR fragment remain to be addressed. In cells with functional GR the standard glucocorticoid-evoked death pathway causes cells to become irreversibly trapped in G0/G1, and DNA lysis into specific large and small forms occurs.

50(2), 440-444. 21. Thompson, E. B. (1997). Glucocorticoids and apoptosis of hemopoietic cells: Transcriptional and post-transcriptional control. In "Inhaled Glucocorticoids in Asthma Mechanisms and Clinical Actions" (R. P. Schleimer, W. W. Busse, and P. M. ), pp. 81-106. Dekker, New York. 22. , and Ringold, G. (1981). Glucocorticoids regulate expression of dihydrofolate reductase cDNA in mouse mammary tumor virus chimaeric plasraids. Nature (London) 294, 228-232. 23. Ringold, G. M. (1985). Steroid hormone regulation of gene expression.

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