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By Pauline Alderson, Martin Rowland

Revised in attention of alterations made within the ULEAC syllabus B for Biology and the advance of the nationwide Curriculum for technology, this publication emphasizes the purposes of Biology. it's been up-to-date all through with sections increased and additional to supply up to date details.

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_. • _. 1 Growth requirements In order to grow, microorganisms need o water o suitable food o a suitable temperature o a suitable pH (suitable acidity or alkalinity) o surroundings of a suitable concentration Different microorganisms have different needs. Some need a good supply of oxygen; others can grow only if oxygen is absent. Yeast needs o food in the form of sugar o a suitable source of nitrogen such as ammonium ions, urea or amino acids o inorganic ions such as phosphates and sulphates o minute traces of certain metal ions such as magnesium and calcium o minute traces of growth factors such as vitamins The easy way to grow a culture of microorganisms in the laboratory is to buy a suitable growth medium from a biological supplier and make it up with sterile distilled water according to the maker's instructions.

In this way they avoid the temptation to pick certain squares because they look special. They count not only all cells lying within a square but also all those touching and overlapping the top and left-hand sides of the square. They do not count those that touch or overlap the bottom and right-hand sides because these would be counted in neighbouring squares. There is no reason why this system of counting should be used rather than one involving different sides of the square. This just happens to be the system that microbiologists have agreed to use.

Unlike many microorganisms, the ones you will deal with, yeast and Rhizopus, are harmless. This makes it possible for you to learn the safety precautions without danger. 7 Aseptic techniques The liquid and solid media which you use to grow yeast and Rhizopus are suitable for the growth of many other microorganisms. Special methods, called aseptic techniques, must be used when transferring media and microorganisms to make sure that cultures do not become contaminated (spoilt by unwanted organisms).

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