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By Brian C.J. Moore and John Donaghy (Auth.)

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These would include R and R1IIR2 both very much lower than Rin of the operational amplifier. R and R1IIR2 should be such as to ensure that the output current of the operational amplifier was below its rated maximum output current, or its current limited output, as applicable. 5 Ramp-generator theory It will be useful to note the basic principles of ramp-generator theory, before considering triangular wave generator principles. 7. Capacitor C is charged by the constant current when the switch is closed.

B The current in R2. Fig 1-36 Solution a From Kirchhoff's current law, Ij + I2 + U = 0 ν - ν , ν - ο ν - (-v2) h — R2 l· R3 = U V - 36 V V - (-4) = 0 Hence: - j ^ - + — + 2k multiply throughout by 18 k V - 36 + 180 V + 9(V + 4) = 0 V - 36 + 180 V + 9 V + 36 = 0. hence V = 0 SO Ri b As the voltage at node A = 0, then the potential difference across R2 = 0, hence the current in R2 = 0. 37, determine the voltage V at node A relative to ground potential. lR, = 100n 1 ^ = 2000 ■^τ-ν^ιον 1 I -^rv2=2ov T R3 = 300n V=30V Fig 1-37 Solution From Kirchhoff s current law, Ij + I 2 + I3 = 0 thus V - 10 + V - 20 + V - (-30*) Λ =0 100 200 300 multiply throughout by 600 6 V - 6 0 + 3 V - 6 0 + 2 V + 60 = 0 Hence: V = 5-45 volts Note: The equations shown in Example 11 may also be expressed in the form: V _L _L _L l_ix] thus IV2 Rv v Ri R2 R-* _ ViG, + V 2 G 2 + V3G3 G, + G2 + G3 where G = — = the conductance, measured in Siemens.

The capacitance that limits the slewing ability is generally the compensation capacitance, although in some instances, it is the load capacitance. 8 shows that at high required rates of signal change the current available to charge or discharge the capacitance is insufficient, and slew rate limiting of the actual output signal occurs. 12 Slew rate limiting of triangular wave input A triangular wave input will be correctly reproduced, in amplified form, at the output until the repetition rate of the signal is such that the rate of change of voltage inherent in the sloping edge waveform exceeds the slew rate capabilities of the operational amplifier.

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