By George Clayton and Steve Winder (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Operational Amplifiers
With equal source impedances connected to the two input terminals, it is only this mismatch, or difference current, which causes an offset error. The effects of bias and offset currents tend to overshadow the effects of input offset voltage when the input source impedances are high. Provision is normally made for balancing out the effects of initial op-amp offsets by means of a suitable potentiometer. After this adjustment has been made the output voltage of an op-amp is still found to change, even though the applied input signal is zero or a constant DC value.
It is often expressed in decibels (dB) by taking 20 times logarithm (base 10) of the ratio. Common mode rejection presents no problem for op-amps used in the inverting configuration. This is because, with one input earthed, the input common mode voltage ecm must be zero. In non-inverting circuits, feedback causes the voltage at the inverting input to follow that at the non-inverting input. The input common mode voltage thus varies directly with the input signal. With finite CMRR an output signal is produced in response to this common mode input signal.
The basic mechanism governing slew rate is capacitor charging. The rate of change of voltage, at any point in a circuit, is limited by the maximum current available to charge the capacitance at that point. In many op-amp applications it is the charging of the frequency compensating capacitor (internal or external) that sets the output slew rate. For this reason, op-amps designed to have low supply current requirements are generally slower and bandwidth limited. The frequency compensating capacitor of an op-amp is charged by the output current supplied by the first gain stage in the op-amp.