By Günter Seeber
Thoroughly revised and up to date variation. The e-book covers the total box of satellite tv for pc geodesy (status spring/\break summer time 2002). easy chapters on reference platforms, time, sign propagation, and satellite tv for pc orbits are up to date. All at the moment very important commentary tools are integrated and likewise all newly introduced satellites of curiosity to geodesy. specific emphasis is given to the present prestige of the worldwide Positioning process (GPS), which covers now approximately one 3rd of the ebook. a brand new bankruptcy on Differential GPS and energetic GPS reference networks is incorporated. The GPS modernization plans, GLONASS, the imminent eu process GALILEO, sleek advancements in GPS information research, mistakes modelling, unique genuine time tools and ambiguity solution are handled intimately. New satellite tv for pc laser ranging missions, new altimetry missions (e.g. TOPEX/Poseidon, ERS-1/2, GFO, JASON), and new and drawing close gravity box missions (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE) also are thought of. The booklet serves as a textbook for complicated undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to a reference for pros and scientists within the box of engineering and geosciences resembling geodesy, surveying, geo-information, navigation, geophysics and oceanography.
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Department of Defense (DoD) since about 1960 in order to define and establish a geocentric terrestrial reference system. WGS 60 was followed by WGS 66, then by WGS 72, and finally by WGS 84. , 2002). 5] satellites. As a consequence, coordinates derived from the broadcast ephemeris with Transit or GPS refer to WGS. This is the main reason for the high acceptance of WGS 84 as a primary reference coordinate system. 1 (cf. NIMA, 2000). 1. 1 Reference Coordinate Systems 29 WGS 84 practically coincides with the Geodetic Reference System 1980.
G. the ETRF89 for Europe and SIRGAS for South America (cf. 1]). 6]. 3 Relationship between CIS and CTS The transition from the space-fixed equatorial system (CIS) to the conventional terrestrial system (CTS) is realized through a sequence of rotations that account for − precession 18 2 Fundamentals − nutation − Earth rotation including polar motion. These can be described with matrix operations. For a point on the celestial sphere, described through its position vector r, we can write r CTS = SNP r CIS .
These are the Air Force and NIMA permanent GPS tracking stations (cf. 3]). 2] were used for the realization of the WGS 84 reference frame. In 1994, in 1996 and again in 2002 a refined set of station coordinates based on GPS observations were introduced into the realization of the WGS 84 frame. These frames are designated as WGS 84 (G730), WGS 84 (G873) and WGS 84 (G1150). 3] when these coordinates were implemented into the ephemeris estimation process. It should be noted that the original definition of the WGS 84 did not change along with these refinements in the realization of the WGS 84 frames.